Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the first peoples of Australia. There is a great diversity of cultures, languageskinship structures and ways of life among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across Australia.
Evidence of Aboriginal art in Australia can be traced back some 30, years. The ancestors of Indigenous Australians are believed to have arrived in Australia 40, to 60, years ago, and possibly as early as 70, years ago.
At the time of first European contact, it has been estimated the existing population was at least ,   while recent archaeological finds suggest that a population ofcould have been sustained.
People appear to have arrived by sea during a period of glaciation, when New Guinea and Tasmania were joined to the continent. The journey still required sea travel however, making them amongst the world's earlier mariners.
If they arrived around 70, years ago, they could have crossed the water from Timor, when the sea level was low; but if they came later, around 50, years ago, a more likely route would be through the Moluccas to New Guinea.
Given that the likely landfall regions have been under around 50 metres of water for the last 15, years, it is unlikely that the Australian refugees essay will ever be established with certainty. Aboriginal Australian religious practices associated with the Dreamtime have been practised for tens of thousands of years.
The earliest known human remains were found at Lake Mungoa dry lake in the Australian refugees essay of New South Wales.
The Dreaming established the laws and structures of society and the ceremonies performed to ensure continuity of life and land. It remains a prominent feature of Australian Aboriginal art.
Aboriginal art is believed to be the oldest continuing tradition of art in the world.
The Aborigines, he noted, did not develop agriculture, probably owing to a lack of seed bearing plants and animals suitable for domestication. Thus, the population remained low. Clark considered that the three potential pre-European colonising powers and traders of East Asia—the Hindu-Buddhists of southern India, the Muslims of Northern India and the Chinese—each petered out in their southward advance and did not attempt a settlement across the straits separating Indonesia from Australia.
But trepang fisherman did reach the north coast, which they called "Marege" or "land of the trepang". A Luritja man demonstrating method of attack with boomerang under cover of shield The greatest population density for Aborigines developed in the southern and eastern regions, the River Murray valley in particular.
Aborigines lived and used resources on the continent sustainably, agreeing to cease hunting and gathering at particular times to give populations and resources the chance to replenish.
Some 10—12, years ago, Tasmania became isolated from the mainland, and some stone technologies failed to reach the Tasmanian people such as the hafting of stone tools and the use of the Boomerang. The early wave of European observers like William Dampier described the hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the Aborigines of the West Coast as arduous and "miserable".
Lieutenant James Cook on the other hand, speculated in his journal that the "Natives of New Holland" the East Coast Aborigines whom he encountered might in fact be far happier than Europeans. Each nation had its own language and a few had multiple, thus over languages existed, around of which are now extinct.
Bastions of largely unaltered Aboriginal societies survived, particularly in Northern and Western Australia into the 20th century, until finally, a group of Pintupi people of the Gibson Desert became the last people to be contacted by outsider ways in Impact of European settlement[ edit ] Main article: Australian frontier wars Portrait of the Aboriginal explorer and diplomat Bungaree in British dress at Sydney in The first known landing in Australia by Europeans was by Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in Twenty-nine other Dutch navigators explored the western and southern coasts in the 17th century, and dubbed the continent New Holland.
No European Nation has a right to occupy any part of their country, or settle among them without their voluntary consent. Conquest over such people can give no just title: The first governorArthur Phillipwas instructed explicitly to establish friendship and good relations with the Aborigines, and interactions between the early newcomers and the ancient landowners varied considerably throughout the colonial period—from the curiosity displayed by the early interlocutors Bennelong and Bungaree of Sydney to the outright hostility of Pemulwuy and Windradyne of the Sydney region  and Yagan around Perth.
Bungaree accompanied the explorer Matthew Flinders on the first circumnavigation of Australia. Pemulwuy was accused of the first killing of a white settler inand Windradyne resisted early British expansion beyond the Blue Mountains.
Even worse, smallpox, measles, influenza and other new diseases swept from one Aboriginal camp to another The main conqueror of Aborigines was to be disease and its ally, demoralisation". It was fought using mostly guerrilla-warfare tactics; however, several conventional battles also took place.
The wars resulted in the defeat of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Indigenous clans who were subsequently dispossessed of their lands.UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
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