The aim is to apply principles and concepts from a variety of social science disciplines e.
Things to think about This chapter presents two case studies that illustrate many of the concepts in this book. The first is about eco-technology, and the second is about a regional environmental programme. I personally participated in both.
Today, so many contemporary trends seem to be away from ecologically sustainable development. How can we foster sustainable development in the face of these trends? These case studies start by showing how changes in the human social system changed human - ecosystem interaction in ways that in turn have changed the ecosystem with detrimental consequences for people.
Each case study then demonstrates how people can translate ecological ideas into concrete actions to move human - ecosystem interaction in a healthier and more sustainable direction.
These examples show the rewards of paying attention to both ecological and social considerations in a balanced manner when dealing with environmental problems. Effective and enduring solutions to environmental problems cannot be expected when solutions focus only on political and economic considerations to the exclusion of ecological realities, or when they focus solely on ecological considerations to the exclusion of social realities.
The case studies show how real people are responsible for innovative ideas and the entire process of transforming ideas to reality. Sustainable development is not something that others will do for us.
It is something that together we must all do for ourselves. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Mosquitoes and Copepods: This case study shows how modernization can create new public health problems and how local community action with an ecological approach can contribute to sustainable solutions.
The disease and the mosquito Dengue is a flavivirus related to yellow fever. It may have originated in non-human primates, which still provide a natural reservoir in Africa and Asia. Non-human primates do not show symptoms, but humans can become seriously ill. First-time dengue infections in children are usually mild and often unnoticed, but first-time infections in adults may be severe.
Fatalities are rare, but high fever, chills, headache, vomiting, severe prostration, muscle and bone aches and severe weakness for more than a month after the fever subsides make dengue fever an illness that many adults remember as the worst sickness they ever experienced.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a life-threatening form of dengue. It is not caused by a separate viral strain; instead, it comes from the fact that the dengue virus has four distinct strains. Infection with one strain confers lifelong immunity to that strain but also creates antibodies that enhance infection with the other three strains.
Dengue hemorrhagic fever typically occurs when infection with one strain is followed a year or more later by infection with another strain.
About 3 per cent of second infections produce dengue hemorrhagic fever, and about 40 per cent of dengue hemorrhagic fever cases develop a shock syndrome that can be fatal. The most damaging symptom is fluid leakage from capillaries into tissues and body cavities, sometimes accompanied by severe gastrointestinal bleeding hence the name hemorrhagic.
There is no medicine to counter the virus, but the loss of fluids can be treated by getting water and electrolytes into the vascular system, administered orally in mild cases and intravenously in severe cases.
Most dengue hemorrhagic fever victims are under 15 years old. If untreated, about 5 per cent of cases are fatal, but proper treatment can reduce fatalities to less than 1 per cent.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Originally a tree-hole-breeding mosquito in Africa, it long ago acquired an urban life style by breeding in similar situations around human habitations. Aedes aegypti now breeds in man-made containers such as water storage tanks, wells, clogged rain gutters and discarded objects such as tyres, tin cans and jars that collect rainwater.
The mosquito lays her eggs on the side of a container a few millimetres above the water level. The eggs can sit for months without hatching if they remain dry, but they hatch within minutes if covered with water.
The fact that this normally happens only when more water is added to a container increases the probability that a container will have enough water for the larvae to complete their development before the container dries out.
While male mosquitoes feed only on plant juices, females suck blood from animals to get the nutrients they need to develop their eggs. When a female takes blood from a person infected with dengue, the virus multiplies in her body, and 7 to 15 days later depending upon temperature she has enough of the virus to infect people.
Transmission of the virus is much higher in tropical climates, where rapid viral multiplication at higher temperatures makes it more likely for an infected mosquito to survive long enough to become infectious. History of dengue Starting in the 16th century with the expansion of European colonialism and trade, Aedes aegypti spread around the world by hitching rides in water storage containers on boats.
Dengue and Aedes aegypti existed in Asia for centuries without serious consequences because the distribution of Aedes aegypti was limited by Aedes albopictus, an indigenous Asian mosquito that is physiologically capable of transmitting dengue but not associated with significant dengue transmission in practice.
Asian towns and cities were well endowed with trees and shrubs, and Aedes albopictus competitively excluded Aedes aegypti wherever there was vegetation.
The situation in the Americas was quite different. Aedes aegypti thrived in cities and towns because no mosquito like Aedes albopictus restricted its distribution. We know Aedes aegypti was common in the Americas because of numerous yellow fever epidemics following the introduction of yellow fever from Africa by the slave trade in the 16th century.
The historical record for dengue is not clear because its symptoms do not distinguish it from other diseases, but dengue was probably common throughout much of the Americas for centuries.
Philadelphia had a dengue fever epidemic in STRATEGY Implementing development programmes to facilitate the transfor- mation process This will include principles of public management.
The city is the judicial capital of Gujarat as High Court is located here. Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly known as the HR Department [by whom?], it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives. [need quotation to verify] HR is primarily concerned with the . One of the world's leading experts on pay, Ed Lawler, explains the strategic role of pay in attracting and retaining employees and in organizational design and culture.
Planning human resources development to achieve priority health programme goals Human Resources for Health Development World Health Organization. Effective management of human capital is critical to the success of most organisations.
Yet with all the emphasis on human resource development, many leaders still struggle with managing performance and retaining talent. History of Human Resources Development in India; Memorandum & Articles of Association; National President, National HRD Network (NHRDN) VTS 01 1.
VTS 01 1 new NHRDN 3rd Women Conference Delhi & NCR Chapter. Building HR Strategy. Managing Culture, Design & Change. Search the site.
You are here. Home» Documents» Other Documents. Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective management of organization workers so that they help the business gain a competitive advantage, Commonly known as the HR Department [by whom?], it is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer's strategic objectives.
[need quotation to verify] HR is primarily concerned with the .