Overview[ edit ] The challenge for the psychology of religion is essentially threefold: The first, descriptive task naturally requires a clarification of one's terms—above all, the word religion.
Three primary reflexes are described by Piaget: Over the first six weeks of life, these reflexes begin to become voluntary actions; for example, the palmar reflex becomes intentional grasping.
Main focus is still on the infant's body. Also at this phase, passive reactions, caused by classical or operant conditioningcan begin . Three new abilities occur at this stage: At this stage, infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of a desired object, often to the amusement of friends and family.
Secondary circular reactions, or the repetition of an action involving an external object begin; for example, moving a switch to turn on a light repeatedly.
The differentiation between means and ends also occurs.
This is perhaps one of the most important stages of a child's growth as it signifies the dawn of logic . This is an extremely important stage of development, holding what Piaget calls the "first proper intelligence.
Piaget describes the child at this juncture as the "young scientist," conducting pseudo-experiments to discover new methods of meeting challenges . This marks the passage into the preoperational stage. Pre Operatory Thought is any procedure for mentally acting on objects.
The hallmark of the preoperational stage is sparse and logically inadequate mental operations. During this stage, the child learns to use and to represent objects by images, words, and drawings. The child has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others.
Two substages can be formed from preoperative thought. The child would respond positively. However when asked if there are more dogs than animals, the child would once again respond positively. Such fundamental errors in logic show the transition between intuitiveness in solving problems and true logical reasoning acquired in later years when the child grows up.
Piaget considered that children primarily learn through imitation and play throughout these first two stages, as they build up symbolic images through internalized activity.
Important processes during this stage are: Seriation—the ability to sort objects in an order according to size, shape, or any other characteristic. For example, if given different-shaded objects they may make a color gradient.
Transitivity- The ability to recognize logical relationships among elements in a serial order, and perform 'transitive inferences' for example, If A is taller than B, and B is taller than C, then A must be taller than C. Classification—the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another.
Decentering—where the child takes into account multiple aspects of a problem to solve it.No matter what you decide to study at Heidelberg - you will be challenged, mentored, and inspired. By working with professors to create an academic pathway unique to you, every student has a personalized academic journey that fits their goals and dreams.
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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology. Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: November