Jean For every mystery solved, another mystery shows up.
Rajah Sulayman The earliest evidence of human life around present-day Manila is the nearby Angono Petroglyphsdated to around BC. Negritosthe aboriginal inhabitants of the Philippines, lived across the island of Luzonwhere Manila is located, before the Malayo-Polynesians migrated in and assimilated them.
The Tondo district was the traditional capital of the empire, and its rulers were sovereign kings, not mere chieftains. It was then settled by the Indianized empire of Majapahitas recorded in the epic eulogy poem " Nagarakretagama ", which described the area's conquest by Maharaja Hayam Wuruk.
The rajahnate was ruled under and gave yearly tribute to the Sultanate of Brunei as a satellite state. He established a trading challenge to the already rich House of Lakan Dula in Tondo.
Islam was further strengthened by the arrival of Muslim traders from the Middle East and Southeast Asia. The victorious Spaniards made Manila, the capital of the Spanish East Indies and of the Philippines, which their empire would control for the next three centuries.
InManila was temporarily besieged by the Chinese pirate Lim Hongwho was ultimately thwarted by the local inhabitants. Silver that was mined in Mexico and Peru was exchanged for Chinese silkIndian gems and the spices of Southeast Asia.
An unknown number of Indian soldiers known as sepoyswho came with the British, deserted and settled in nearby Cainta, Rizalwhich explains the uniquely Indian features of generations of Cainta residents.
The city's growing wealth and education attracted indigenous people, Chinese, Indians, Latinos, and Europeans from the surrounding provinces  and facilitated the rise of an ilustrado class that espoused liberal ideas: The First Philippine Republicbased in nearby Bulacanfought against the Americans for control of the city.
Upon drafting a new charter for Manila in Junethe Americans made official what had long been tacit: The new charter proclaimed that Manila was composed of eleven municipal districts: Later, two more would be added: Balut and San Andres.
The planned buildings included a government center occupying all of Wallace Field, which extends from Rizal Park to the present Taft Avenue. The Philippine Capitol was to rise at the Taft Avenue end of the field, facing toward the sea.
Of Burnham's proposed government center, only three units—the Legislative Building and the buildings of the Finance and Agricultural Departments—were completed when World War II erupted.
Japanese occupation and World War II[ edit ] The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila in During the Japanese occupation of the PhilippinesAmerican soldiers were ordered to withdraw from Manila, and all military installations were removed on December 24, General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city to prevent further death and destruction, but Japanese warplanes continued to bomb it.
Manila was occupied by Japanese forces on January 2, Somecivilians were killed in February. It was the second most devastated city in the world, after Warsawduring the Second World War.
Almost all of the structures in the city, particularly in Intramuros, were destroyed.
Rizal Avenue in the s before the construction of LRT Line 1 InPresident Elpidio Quirino moved the seat of government of the Philippines to Quezon Citya new capital in the suburbs and fields northeast of Manila, created in during the administration of President Manuel L.
With the Visayan-born Arsenio Lacson as its first elected mayor in all mayors were appointed before thisManila underwent The Golden Age,  once again earning its status as the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the Second World War.
After Lacson's term in the s, Manila was led by Antonio Villegas for most of the s. Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are collectively known as the "Big Three of Manila" for their contribution to the development of the city and their lasting legacy in improving the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.
During the administration of Ferdinand Marcosthe region of Metro Manila was created as an integrated unit with the enactment of Presidential Decree No.
The area encompassed four cities and thirteen adjoining townsas a separate regional unit of government. She started the rejuvenation of the city as she re-branded Manila as the " City of Man ".
After decades of resistance, the non-violent People Power Revolution predecessor to the peaceful-revolutions that toppled the iron-curtain in Europeousted the authoritarian Marcos from power. During his early years, his administration was faced with million pesos worth of debt and inherited an empty treasury.
Lopez closed down numerous illegal gambling joints and jueteng. In JanuaryLopez padlocked two Manila casinos operated by the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation PAGCORsaying the billions it gained cannot make up for the negative effects gambling inflicts upon the people, particularly the youth.
InAlfredo Lim was elected mayor, the first Chinese-Filipino to hold the office. He was known for his anti-crime crusades.
From top, left to right: The Manila skyline, Rizal Monument, Fort Santiago, Malacañang Palace, University of Santo Tomas, Manila City Hall, Quiapo Church. - Oil: Kernel contains a fixed oil, % called Indian Almond oil, oil of Badamier, or in the Philippines, as Talisay oil. - Tannin / Dye: Fruits and roots used for tanning leather and provides an ink and black dye for dyeing cotton and rattan. The dye affinity of the talisay extract was evaluated using three dyeing applications on silk, ramie, cotton, and abaca samples. Dark black color was obtained on silk samples and lighter shade on ramie cotton and abaca samples using 5% copper sulfate as mordant, 35% ferrous sulfate as .
Lim was succeeded by Lito Atienzawho served as his vice mayor. Atienza was known for his campaign and city slogan "Buhayin ang Maynila" Revive Manilawhich saw the establishment of several parks and the repair and rehabilitation of the city's deteriorating facilities.
He was the city's mayor for 3 terms 9 years before being termed out of office. Lim once again ran for mayor and defeated Atienza's son Ali in the city election and immediately reversed all of Atienza's projects  claiming Atienza's projects made little contribution to the improvements of the city.
The relationship of both parties turned bitter, with the two pitting again during the city elections in which Lim won against Atienza. Lim was sued by councilor Dennis Alcoreza on over human rights charged with graft over the rehabilitation of public schools,  and was heavily criticized for his haphazard resolution of the Rizal Park hostage taking incidentone of the deadliest hostage crisis in the Philippines.From top, left to right: The Manila skyline, Rizal Monument, Fort Santiago, Malacañang Palace, University of Santo Tomas, Manila City Hall, Quiapo Church.
com/Talisay. html Dye A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and requires a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.
green on the bottom. Usually, dye are extracted from Talisay leaves using water solvent to produce a yellow, green and black colorant which can be applied in textile materials . One advantage of synthetic dye over natural dye is its availability in the market.
Since the . In this research, moisture analysis for the dye powders of Talisay Leaves and Mahogany Bark were analyse using TGA Q Wherein, samples of mg were placed inside a platinum cell and heated at the rate of 10 ºC min-1 .
The dye affinity of the talisay extract was evaluated using three dyeing applications on silk, ramie, cotton, and abaca samples.
Dark black color was obtained on silk samples and lighter shade on ramie cotton and abaca samples using 5% copper sulfate as mordant, 35% ferrous sulfate as . The Holocene epoch begins 11, years BP, (10 14 C years ago).