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References provide support for statements and add credibility to writing.
The rules for what needs a citation are an academic tradition, but are rarely stated explicitly: All direct quotations from another author must be cited. The writer has no discretion in this matter: Failure to cite quotations is known as plagiarism, a serious academic offense that is equivalent to fraudulent representation of someone else's property as the writer's.
It is highly recommended that authors always include the indicia of a quotation [i. It is not an acceptable defense to plagiarism to claim that the author forgot to include the indicia of a quotation.
All substantial information taken from another source should be cited. There are four reasons for this: The meaning of "substantial information" in 2 is deduced on a case-by-case basis by considering the four reasons.
If at least one of the reasons is appropriate or desirable, then a reference should be used. However, one does not give a reference for well-known facts e.
The appropriate test is whether any person with an undergraduate education in the appropriate specialty would immediately recognize the fact: Let us take a moment to expand on item 2b above.
If the writer doubts the truth of the information, then the writer should indicate to the reader the basis for those doubts. This can be accomplished diplomatically by making a "on the one hand Doubts can also be raised and at least partly resolved by discussing alternative interpretations.
The point is that the writer can not just serve the reader some cited material and then walk away from the mess: If a complete resolution of the facts is not possible, then the writer has an obligation to say so. Some types of statements beg for a citation.
For example, It is commonly believed that It is widely known that The conventional wisdom is that These assertions need a citation of at least one I prefer three references that support the assertion.
These references may be to textbooks, which are rarely cited in professional literature in other contexts. There are two reasons for requiring a reference to this type of statement: What kind of literature should be referenced?
It is preferred that all references be archival material: There is one test for "archival": Is it retained permanently by many major technical libraries?
In general, any paper that is listed in standard databases e. In addition, patents and government reports qualify as archival materials, although they are often not considered scholarly materials. Engineering standards, although they are important, are not archival: It is almost impossible to locate a copy of an obsolete or withdrawn standard, unless one knows an old engineer who has a copy in the filing cabinet!The Writing Center, Inc.
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This lesson will explore what makes writing creative and use famous examples to show you what makes. FOR EXAMPLE / FOR INSTANCE; The expression for example is followed by supporting details for the word directly mentioned before it. Punctuation varies before example words— such as, namely, for example, e.g., or for alphabetnyc.com depends on how the word .
There are over 1 billion people all over the world learning English right now. Luckily for them, there are now, more than ever, a plethora of great resources on the Web to make this challenge easier. The Guide to Grammar and Writing contains scores of digital handouts on grammar and English usage, over computer-graded quizzes, recommendations on writing -- from basic problems in subject-verb agreement and the use of articles to exercises in parallel structures and help with argumentative essays, and a way to submit questions about grammar and writing.
Report Writing Format By YourDictionary Unlike an essay, which sets out and defends a writer's view about a topic and does not have to feature headings, a report discusses a topic in a .