Positive effects[ edit ] Social surrogacy hypothesis[ edit ] Current research is discovering that individuals suffering from social isolation can employ television to create what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation. Jaye Derrick and Shira Gabriel of the University of Buffalo, and Kurt Hugenberg of Miami University found that when an individual is not able to participate in interactions with real people, they are less likely to indicate feelings of loneliness when watching their favorite TV show. This benefit is considered a positive consequence of watching television, as it can counteract the psychological damage that is caused by isolation from social relationships. Educational television Several studies have found that educational television has many advantages.
Media effects theories[ edit ] Social learning theory[ edit ] Social learning theory originated with Bandura's which suggests that children may learn aggression from viewing others. Bandura presented children with an Aggressive Model: The model played with 'harmless' tinker toys for a minute or so but then progressed onto the Bobo doll, the model lay the Bobo doll down and was violent towards it; punched its nose, hit it with a mallet, tossed it in the air, and kicked it.
In addition, verbal comments were made in relation. The findings of this experiment suggest that children tended to model the behavior they witnessed in the video. This has been often taken to imply that children may imitate aggressive behaviors witnessed in media.
However, Bandura's experiments have been criticized e. Gauntlett, on several grounds. First, it is difficult to generalize from aggression toward a bo-bo doll which is intended to be hit to person-on-person violence.
Secondly, it may be possible that the children were motivated simply to please the experimenter rather than to be aggressive. In other words, the children may have viewed the videos as instructions, rather than incentives to feel more aggressive. Third, in a latter study Bandura included a condition in which the adult model was punished for hitting the bo-bo doll by himself being physically punished.
Specifically the adult was pushed down in the video by the experimenter and hit with a newspaper while being berated. This actual person-on-person violence actually decreased aggressive acts in the children, probably due to vicarious reinforcement.
Nonetheless these last results indicate that even young children don't automatically imitate aggression, but rather consider the context of aggression. Given that some scholars estimate that children's viewing of violence in media is quite common, concerns about media often follow social learning theoretical approaches.
The concept of desensitization has particularly gotten much interest from the scholarly community and general public.
It is theorized that with repeated exposure to media violence, a psychological saturation or emotional adjustment takes place such that initial levels of anxiety and disgust diminish or weaken. They were then asked to watch a minute video of real life violence. The students who had played the violent video games were observed to be significantly less affected by a simulated aggressive act than those who didn't play the violent video games.
However the degree to which the simulation was "believable" to the participants, or to which the participants may have responded to "demand characteristics" is unclear see criticisms below.
Nonetheless, social cognitive theory was arguably the most dominant paradigm of media violence effects for many years, although it has come under recent criticism e.
Freedman, ; Savage, Recent scholarship has suggested that social cognitive theories of aggression are outdated and should be retired. The catalyst model is a new theory and has not been tested extensively.
According to the catalyst model, violence arises from a combination of genetic and early social influences family and peers in particular. According to this model, media violence is explicitly considered a weak causal influence. Specific violent acts are "catalyzed" by stressful environment circumstances, with less stress required to catalyze violence in individuals with greater violence predisposition.
Some early work has supported this view e. Recent research with inmates has, likewise, provided support for the catalyst model. Moral panic theory[ edit ] A final theory relevant to this area is the moral panic. Elucidated largely by David Gauntlett this theory postulates that concerns about new media are historical and cyclical.
In this view, a society forms a predetermined negative belief about a new medium—typically not used by the elder and more powerful members of the society. Research studies and positions taken by scholars and politicians tend to confirm the pre-existing belief, rather than dispassionately observe and evaluate the issue.
Eventually the panic dies out after several years or decades, but ultimately resurfaces when yet another new medium is introduced. Criticisms[ edit ] Although organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychological Association have suggested that thousands according to the AAP of studies have been conducted confirming this link, others have argued that this information is incorrect.
Rather, only about two hundred studies confirmed by meta-analyses such as Paik and Comstock, have been conducted in peer-reviewed scientific journals on television, film, music and video game violence effects.Teen violence has become an increasing concern as more teens become victims or perpetrators of teen violence.
Teen violence occurs for a number of reasons, and is usually the result of a number of factors in a teen’s life, background, and personality. Craig A. Anderson, Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Iowa State University, is widely regarded as the foremost expert on the effects of violent video alphabetnyc.com research on aggression, media violence, depression, and social judgment has had a profound influence on psychological theory and modern society.
The Origins of Human Love and Violence James W. Prescott, Ph.D. · Institute of Humanistic Science From Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, Volume 10, Number 3: Spring , pp. Early research on the effects of viewing violence on television — especially among children — found a desensitizing effect and the potential for aggression.
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Young people view over rapes, murders, armed robberies, and assaults every year sitting in front of the television set Recently published, the three year, National Television Violence Study examined nearly 10 hours of television programming and found that 61% contained violenceChildren's programming was found to be the most violent.