Words and production of meaning 2: MP3 Palmer reading from "Autobiography" 3: MP3 Russian influence on "Autobiography" 3: MP3 Schwartz reading a passage from a Palmer essay 1:
Pre-Spanish Philippine writing system Baybayin: It is a member of the Brahmic family and is recorded as being in use in the 16th century. It continued to be used during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines up until the late 19th Century.
Baybayin was extensively documented by the Spanish. Some have attributed it the name Alibata, but this name is incorrect. The present author does not use this word in reference to any ancient Philippine script.
Baybayin is one of a dozen or so individual writing systems used in Southeast Asia, nearly all of which are abugidas where any consonant is pronounced with the inherent vowel a following it— diacritical marks being used to express other vowels this vowel occurs with greatest frequency in Sanskrit, and also probably in all Philippine languages.
Origins Baybayin was noted by the Spanish priest Pedro Chirino in and Antonio de Morga in to be known by most, and was generally used for personal writings, poetry, etc.
According to William Henry Scott, there were some datus from the s who could not sign affidavits or oaths, and witnesses who could not sign land deeds in the s. There is no data on when this level of literacy was first achieved, and no history of the writing system itself.
There are at least six theories writing address in french the origins of Baybayin. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines. It was written in the Kawi script in a variety of Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog.
One hypothesis therefore reasons that, since Kawi is the earliest attestation of writing on the Philippines, then Baybayin may be descended from Kawi.
A second example of Kawi script can be seen on the Butuan Ivory Seal, though it has not been dated. However, its authenticity has not yet been proven. In particular, the Pallava script from Sumatra is attested to the 7th century. This hypothesis states that a version of this script was introduced to the Philippines via Bengal, which evolved into Baybayin.
Cham Finally, an early Cham script from Champa—in what is now southern Vietnam and southeastern Cambodia—could have been introduced or borrowed and adapted into Baybayin. Characteristics The writing system is an abugida system using consonant-vowel combinations.
The mark is called a kudlit. The kudlit does not apply to stand-alone vowels.
Vowels themselves have their own glyphs. There is only one symbol for D or R as they were allophones in most languages of the Philippines, where D occurred in initial, final, pre-consonantal or post-consonantal positions and R in intervocalic positions.
This variant of the script is not used for Ilokano, Pangasinan, Bikolano, and other Philippine languages to name a few, as these languages have separate symbols for D and R.
This cross-shaped kudlit functions exactly the same as the virama in the Devanagari script of India. In fact, Unicode calls this kudlit the Tagalog Sign Virama. See sample above in Characteristics Section.
Punctuation Words written in baybayin were written in a continuous flow, and the only form of punctuation was a single vertical line, or more often, a pair of vertical lines. These vertical lines fulfill the function of a comma, period, or unpredictably separate sets of words.
Usage Baybayin historically was used in Tagalog and to a lesser extent Kapampangan speaking areas. Its use spread to Ilokanos when the Spanish promoted its use with the printing of Bibles.
Currently, Baybayin itself is experiencing an artistic revival of sorts, used to convey a Pre-Hispanic feeling as well as a symbol of Filipino identity. Most activist groups used Baybayin as part of their logo using the script for the acronyms such as the Baybayin K for Anakbayan alongside the use of a baybayin-inspired latin script.
Baybayin tattoos and brush calligraphy are growing in popularity. From Wikipedia Like this: AlibataBaybayinkali arnis eskrimaMandirigma.Although French and English use nearly all of the same punctuation marks, some of their uses in the two languages are considerably different.
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